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  Location and Climate

  Tatarstan is located in the eastern part of the East-European plain, in the place of conjunction of largest European rivers - Volga, Kama, Vyatka, Belaya. The form of the territory on the map looks like a rectangle stretched from west to east.
  Kazan is 797 km distance to east from Moscow.
  
  The territory of the republic is 67 836.2 sq. km. The length of the territory is 290 km from north to south and 460 km from west to east. The neighbours of Tatarstan are: west - Republic of Chuvashia, nortwest - Mari El Republic, north - Kirovskaya oblast and Republic of Udmurtia, east - Bashkortostan, south - Orenburgskaya, Samarskaya and Ulyanovskaya oblasts. Tatarstan has no borders with foreign states. The time is that of Moscow.
  
  The territory of republic represents a plain in forest and forest-steppe zone with small heights on the right bank of Volga and southeast of the republic. 90% of the territory lays at height not more than 200 m above the sea level. The territory of Tatarstan is divided into five precisely detached natural-geographical parts which received names Predvolzhye (to the west and south from valley of Volga), Predkamye (to the north from valleys of Kama and Volga), Zakamye (to the south from valley of Kama). Predkamye is divided in its turn into Western Predkamye and East Predkamye by the valley of Vyatka, and Zakamye is divided into Western zakamye and East Zakamye by the valley of Sheshma.
  
  The territory of the republic in the north of Predkamye is partly in the zone of taiga, most part of Predkamye, Predvolzhye and part of Zakamye are in the zone of deciduous woods, the south of Predvolzhye and most part of Zakamye - in the forest-steppe zone. Variety of environment determines riches of floristic structure (1317 kinds of plants concerning 109 families). The natural vegetation is presented by woods, medow-steppes, bogs. More than 16% of the territory of the republic are covered with woods consisting of trees of mainly deciduous breeds (oak, linden, birch, aspen), coniferous breeds are presented by pine and fur-tree. The local fauna is presented by 430 kinds of vertebrate and hundreds kinds of various invertebrate animals.
  
  The climate is moderate continental. Sometimes there are droughts. The territory of Tatarstan is characterized by continental type of climate of moderate latitudes with warm summer and moderate cold winter. The average temperature of January (the coldest month)-14C, July (the warmest month) +19C. Average amount of precipitations is from 460 up to 520 mm. The vegetative period is about 170 days.
  
   Grounds are various - from grey wood and podsolic in the north and west to various kinds of chernozems in the south of the republic (32% of the area).


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