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  Industry

  The industry of the Kazan province concentrated mainly in Kazan, even before revolution received significant development. On output it took the eleventh place among 44 provinces of the European part of Russia. According to the data of 1913, there were 406 enterprises (every with productivity over thousand roubles per year) where 16252 workers were occupied. Their annual production was estimated in 25 million roubles; three quarters of this sum belonged to the Kazan enterprises. During the first world war industrial production of the Kazan enterprises increased even more.
  Together with the growth of the industry, number of factory workers increased too. To the beginning of century at Alafuzov's factories it up to 3,5 thousand workers were occupied, at Krestovnikovs brothers - up to 2,2 thousand, at powder plant - up to 2 thousand workers. By these parameters, already in the beginning of century, these three Kazan enterprises were as many largest enterprises of Russia.
  By 1914 in Kazan ther were 128 large industrial enterprises with volume of manufacture of 28 million roubles.
  During civil war the majority of the industrial enterprises did not work because of absence of raw material, energy and deterioration of the equipment. After war first of all, overcoming enormous difficulties, workers began to restore factories and plants. By October 1927, the output of the Kazan enterprises reached a pre-war level.
  At the time of WWII the industrial shape of Kazan changed much as a result of placement of the evacuated enterprises. The majority of 70 enterprises evacuated to Tataria were placed in its capital.
  In short terms all evacuated enterprises were started up in operation. The mass production of military production began.
  After war the Kazan enterprises were conversed to peace rails. Practically all of them steadily increased volumes of manufacture.
  In 1950-1960 Kazan turned to the largest industrial centre of the Volga region. The industrial output of city was exported almost to 40 countries. Absence of its own metallurgical base and necessity of delivery of metal determined primary development of exact mechanical engineering and instrument making. Kazan gave the country various machine tools, heat-measuring devices, compressors, medical tools, typewriters, sanitary equipment, projectors, electrodevices, gas cookers, carriages for pendant rope-ways, agricultural machines and many other things.
  Extremely rich resources of raw materials - petroleum and natural gas - opened wide prospects for development of the chemical industry in Kazan.
  In 1970-1980 practically all enterprises of Kazan worked steadily and stably. The feature of that period was the prevalence of the enterprises of the defensive industry. So, by 1990, density of production of enterprises of the military-industrial complex in city volume of manufacture was 40,6%.
  Economic difficulties of the beginning of 1990 resulted in reorientation of the enterprises of the military-industrial complex to conversion.
  Now in Kazan about 140 large and average enterprises work. 65 enterprises of them steadily increase volumes of manufacture.


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