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  Baki Urmanche

  In the history of the Tatar fine art it is difficult to find the master of more many-sided art culture, than Baki Idrisovich Urmanche.
  Being a sculpture, painter, graphic artist and master of theatre scenery, teacher and researcher of the development of national art, he contributed in every kind of the fine art. Baki Idrisovich Urmanche was born in a large family with many children in the village Kul-Cherkene (near Buinsk district of the republic of Tatarstan) on February 23, 1897. In 1907 the family moved to the village Malye Saltyki, and in the autumn B. Urmanche started to study at Kazan madrasah 'Muhammadia'.
  In 1912 B. Urmanche tried to enter an art school, but not having sufficient art preparation he didn't pass admission examination. So for B. Urmanche wandering life began, he was working as an odd-job man, the loader, the woodcutter, works at rural school.
  In 1919 B. Urmanche entered the Kazan art school. Then he studied in the Moscow State Art school, on graduating from which he was appointed the leader of the Kazan Art school. In those years he tried o revive the ceramic art in Kazan. Some sketches of vases made by B. Urmanche in the ancient style with Arabic characters, were included into the Tatar division of the exhibition 'The art of the nations of the USSR' in Moscow (1927)
  In 1927 B.Urmanche was arrested and sent to the Solovetskyie islands. The artist was suspected in participation in the underground group of 'Sultan-Galeyevtsy'. B. Urmanche was released from prison before the appointed time and in 1933 he returned to the creative work.
  The B.I. Urmanche's creative biography can be divided to a certain extent into two periods:
  1926-1929 - the first period, when the graduate of Moscow high art school joined the creative and pedagogical activity in its native land. The creative work of B.I. Urmanche in those years was centered on the field of easel painting. All his best works were made in those years, first of all the works of genre painting and portraits (canvases 'At the samovar', 'At a boat ferry'). B. Urmanche was the first painter of Tatar nationality in those years, who perceived high culture studied in Moscow school and made sense of it, he was a painter of the level appropriate to all the modern achievements of the European paintings.
  1958 - the second period, connecting the creative B. Urmanche's work with Tatar culture, marked with the Painter's return from Kazakhstan. This period is characterized with sculpture, graphics and theatre scenery. B. Urmanche turned to a kind of art of the folk origin - calligraphy, and to creation of shamails. B.Urmanche was engaged in creation of sculpture portraits: K. Nasyri, N. Isanbet, F. Amirchan.
  In 1972 B. Urmanche was given the honourary title of 'Honoured Artist of the RF', and in 1977 - the title of 'People's Artist of the RT'

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