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  Bekhterev Vladimir Mikhailovich

  
  Bekhterev Vladimir Mikhailovich was born on January, 20, 1857 in Vyatka
  province, village Sorali.
  
  He received medical education in the St.-Petersburg medical-surgical academy
  and devoted himself to studying of emotional and nervous illnesses under the
  direction of professor I.P.Merzheevsky.
  
  In 1884 he was sent on business abroad where studied at Dubua-Reimon,
  Wundt, Flexig and Sharko. In 1884 being the professor of the Kazan
  university on the faculty of emotional illnesses, Bekhterev provided
  teaching of this subject by the establishment of clinical branch in the
  Kazan district clinic and psychophysiological laboratory at the university;
  founded the Society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists, based magazine
  "Neurologic Bulletin" and published a number of works on various branches of
  neuropathology and anatomy of nervous system.
  
  In 1893 Bekhterev passed to the army medical college as a professor and
  director of clinic of emotional and nervous illnesses.
  
  In 1905-1906 years, according to election of conference of the academy,
  became the chief of academy.
  
  In 1907 founded psychoneurological institute in St. Petersburg, and became
  its president.
  
  Since the 10s of XX century began construction of his own general psychologic
  theory named reflexology.
  
  V.M.Behterev's death, they say, was not casual, and appeared to be
  connected with his impartial response about the condition of mental health
  of I.Stalin. At present there is a set of the hypotheses, trying to explain
  his death. He died on December 25, 1927, having poisoned with canned food.
  This ridiculous and sudden death caused many rumours and legends. According
  to one of them, Bekhterev was specially poisoned by NKVD because shortly
  before it he had examined Stalin and diagnosed him: "paranoia".
  
  The basic creative achievements.
  
  1. Bekhterev spoke about equal in rights existence of two psychologies:
  subjective which basic method should be introspection, and objective.
  
  2. He developed reflexology, as a method of diagnostics of mental diseases
  and treatment of patients. Problems of reflexology laid "in studying the
  mechanism of formation of collective, on the one hand, and on the other, in
  studying ways and displays of the collective reflexes forming in the general
  set collective activity in comparison with individual reflexes or individual
  activity"
  
  3. In 1921 academician V.M.Bekhterev together with the known trainer of
  animals V.L.Durov carried out experiments on mental suggestion to dogs of
  beforehand conceived actions. Experiments with dogs showed that the mental
  suggestion was not necessarily carried out by trainer, it might be a skilled
  inductor. It was necessary only he knew and applied the technique of
  transfer established by the trainer. Suggestion was carried out as at direct
  visual contact to an animal, and on distance when dogs did not see and did
  not hear the trainer, and the same with him.


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