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  The scientist-innovator, outstanding clinical physician, surgeon, founder
  of original scientific school.
  From 49 years of medical and scientific activity of A.V.Vishnevsky 35
  years are given to Kazan. In Kazan he was formed as a doctor and scientist,
  teacher and public figure, here he made the main discoveries which brought
  to him world popularity.
  A.V.Vishnevsky was born on August 27, 1874 in Dagestan. He received
  secondary education at the Astrakhan grammar school, and after its finishing
  entered the medical faculty of the Kazan university. Graduating from the
  medical faculty, A.V.Vishnevsky entered the supernumerary intern in the
  surgical branch of Alexander hospital of Kazan. In 1902 A.V.Vishnevsky held
  a post of pro-rector. On April, 15 the young scientist was sent on
  business abroad, where, except for studying anatomy, visited clinics of the
  best surgeons of Germany, Switzerland and France.
  In the autumn of 1904 A.V.Vishnevsky was elected the senior lecturer of
  the faculty of topographical anatomy and operative surgery.
  In 1921 A.V.Vishnevsky began careful development of local anesthesia. This
  method in the beginning was met coldly, with mistrust. However neither
  criticism, nor every possible barrier might stop triumphal "procession" of
  local anesthesia, it passed checks in severe years of World war II and
  completely was justified.
  In 1937 A.V.Vishnevsky for the first time in the world executed removal of
  lung under local anesthesia. Theoretical preconditions resulted in
  development of novocaine blockades. They were created by 30s in Kazan and
  found wide application in surgical practice.
  At the end of 1934 A.V.Vishnevsky moved to Moscow. Surgeons of Moscow
  elected A.V.Vishnevsky the chairman of the surgical society.
  He died on November 13, 1948.

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