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  Kovalevsky Nikolay Osipovich

  The Russian physiologist, founder of the Kazan school of physiologists.
  N.Kovalevsky was born on May 8, 1840 in Kazan. After graduation of the
  medical faculty of the Kazan university in 1862 he worked in Vienna. Then till the end of his life, Nikolay Osipovich occupied the faculty of physiology
  at the Kazan university. Since 1878 the dean of the medical faculty, and in
  1880-1882 the rector of this university. Continuing the experimental
  direction begun by his teacher F.V.Ovsyannikov, he investigated reflex
  connections between respiratory apparatus and blood circulation.
  The new stage is connected with N.O.Kovalevsky's name in the development
  of physiology at the Kazan university. During a quarter of century
  (1865-1891) at the Kazan university - the only at that time in the east of
  Russia higher educational institution - Kovalevsky successfully developed
  the research activity devoted to development of fundamental problems of
  physiology of blood circulation and breath, physiology and morphology of
  nervous system, psychophysiology and biochemistry of blood.
  In the 60s of XIX century N.O.Kovalevsky, the first of Russian
  scientifists, began to develop physiology of breath, having created thus the
  original design of the apparatus for research. The principle of action of
  the apparatus was in gradual absorption by alkali of the carbonic acid of an
  experimental animal. For the first time for definition of gas exchange the
  method of the gas analysis was offered.

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